The scope of the syllabus for optional subject papers (Paper VI and Paper VII) for the examination is broadly of the honours degree level i.e. a level higher than the bachelors' degree and lower than the masters' degree.
PAPER - I
- Archaeological sources:
- Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources:
- Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
- Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history:
- Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization:
- Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures:
- Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period:
- Expansions of Aryans in India.
- Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
- Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes;
- Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire:
- Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma;
- Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
- Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
- Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
- Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
- Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
- The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
- Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
- Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
- “Indian Feudalism”
- Agrarian economy and urban settlements
- Trade and commerce
- Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
- Condition of women
- Indian science and technology
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
- Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
- Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
- Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
- Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.
15. The Thirteenth Century:
- Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success.
- Economic, social and cultural consequences
- Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
- Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
16. The Fourteenth Century:
- “The Khalji Revolution”
- Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territtorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures.
- Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
- Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
- Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
- Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
- Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
- Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
- The Vijayanagra Empire
- Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
- The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
- Portuguese Colonial enterprise
- Bhakti and Sufi Movements
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
- Regional cultural specificities
- Literary traditions
- Provincial architecture
- Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
- Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
- Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
- Rajput policy
- Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
- Court patronage of art and technology
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
- Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
- The Empire and the Zamindars
- Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
- Nature of the Mughal State
- Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
- The Ahom Kingdom
- Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
- Population, agricultural production, craft production
- Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
- Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
- Condition of peasants, condition of women
- Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
- Persian histories and other literature
- Hindi and other religious literature
- Mughal architecture
- Mughal painting
- Provincial architecture and painting - Classical music
- Science and technology
24. The Eighteenth Century:
- Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
- The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
- Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
- The Maratha fiscal and financial system
- Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
- State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest